Various physical as well as psychological symptoms in the menstrual cycle can indicate ovulation and the fertile phase. Ovulation pain is a secondary sign of fertility, which can additionally confirm the fertile days apart from the basal body temperature and the cervical mucus.1 It usually occurs approximately in the middle of the cycle during the ovulation phase, if menstruation takes place regularly. It is also known as intermenstrual pain or mittelschmerz, which comes from the German words for “middle” and “pain”.2
A luteal phase defect – also known as luteal insufficiency – can be a possible cause if a pregnancy does not happen. This disorder is also referred to as hormone-related infertility, since the progesterone is not sufficiently produced. The consequences are, due to a lack of nutrients in the endometrium, either a lack of implantation or implantation under poor hormonal conditions, which can lead to an early abortion.
Endometriosis is the development of uterine-lining tissue – the endometrium – outside the uterus. The symptoms of this disorder may include abdominal pain, heavy periods, and infertility.
The quality and amount of cervical mucus varies from woman to woman and can change due to age, lifestyle and diet. However, cervical discharge undergoes certain stages over the course of a menstrual cycle, which are similar in every woman. These variations are indicators for the respective cycle phase as well as ovulation.
The great thing about monitoring your mucus is that it gets much easier after some time practising. Determining and analysing cervical fluid is a matter of experience that needs to be combined with general knowledge of cervical mucus.
The most common hormonal disorder in women of childbearing age is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The disease is predisposed and can occur to varying degrees due to environmental influences. Below you will find more information about the treatment options of this disease.